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Guide to Acute Kidney Injury
What’s In a Fibril?
Acute Kidney Injury in Patients with Cancer
Rapidly Progressive Glomerulonephritis
Urine Microscopy Cells and Casts
Kidney Stones and Crystals
Hypoosmolar, Hypotonic Hyponatremia
Hyponatremia, Tonicity, and Osmolality
Calcium Homeostasis
Primary Metabolic Alkalosis
Etiologies of Nephrotic Syndrome
Approach to Hyperkalemia
Gestational Hypertension & Preeclampsia
Resistant Hypertension
Pulse Augmentation Test
Arteriovenous graft (AVG)
Arteriovenous fistula (AVF)

Guide to Acute Kidney Injury

What’s in a Fibril?

Fibrils NephSIM

 

Acute Kidney Injury in Patients with Cancer

Rapidly Progressive Glomerulonephritis (RPGN)

Urine Microscopy Cells & Casts

Kidney Stones & Crystals

Hypoosmolar, Hypotonic Hyponatremia

Hyponatremia, Osmolality, & Tonicity

Calcium Homeostasis

Metabolic Alkalosis

Etiologies of Nephrotic Syndrome

Etiologies of Hyperkalemia

Gestational Hypertension & Preeclampsia

Resistant Hypertension


ResHTN

Pulse Augmentation Test

Arteriovenous Graft (AVG)

Arteriovenous Fistula (AVF)


URINALYSIS

img_1266.jpg
Squamous Epithelial Cells
Transtional Cell.jpg
Transitional Epithelial Cells (ref)
RTE.jpg
Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells (ref)
Hyaline.png
Hyaline Cast (made of Tamm-Horsfall mucoprotein, secreted by tubules) (ref)
IMG_2194
Red Blood Cells (RBC)
IMG_2274
White Blood Cells (WBC)
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Dysmorphic RBC
RBC Cast
RBC Cast (ref)
WBC Cast.jpg
White Blood Cell Cast (ref)
WBC-cast.jpg
White Blood Cell Cast
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Broad/Waxy Cast
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Dark Granular/”Muddy Brown Casts”
Fatty Oval Body
Fatty Oval Body (under polarized light on right) (ref)
Urine1
Dark red/brown urine (ref): seen with hemoglobinuria, hematuria, myoglobinuria, porphyria, bile fragments, food/drugs

KIDNEY PATHOLOGY

Normal Kidney

Minimal Change Disease

IgA Nephropathy

Acute Interstitial Nephritis

AIN Labeled.png

Post-Infectious Glomerulonephritis

Rhabdomyolysis

Class IV Lupus Nephritis

Lupus Membranous Nephropathy, Class V

Kidney Allograft Adenovirus Nephropathy

Kidney Allograft BK Virus Nephropathy


KIDNEY/BLADDER IMAGING

Normal Kidney2
Normal Kidney (ultrasound, sagittal view)
Kidney1
Normal Kidney (ultrasound, sagittal view)
Echogenic Kidney1.png
Echogenic Kidney (ultrasound, sagittal view)
Kidney3
Hydronephrosis (Kidney ultrasound, sagittal view)
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Hydronephrosis (Ultrasound, kidney transplant, sagittal view)
CTAP1.png
Bilateral hydronephrosis, Computed Tomography (CT)

 

PKD US
Polycystic Kidneys (Ultrasound, sagittal view)
PKD CT
Polycystic kidneys (Computed Tomography (CT))
Bladder1
Bladder (moderate wall thickening) with Urine

DIALYSIS ACCESS IMAGING

 

Outflow Stenosis (visualized during fistulagram)

Outflow-stenosis.png

Relief of Outflow Stenosis (after fistulaplasty)

Outflow-stenosis-relieved.png

IMG_7221

Arteriovenous Graft (AVG) with Venous Anastomosis Stenosis & Intra-Graft Stenosis

In-Stent Stenosis of Cephalic Vein Arch

IMG_7222


LUNG ULTRASOUND

B-Lines (ref)

Blines