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INFOGRAPHICS

Etiologies of Hyperkalemia

HypoNa NephSim2
Etiologies of Hypotonic Hyponatremia

Urinalysis
Kidney Pathology
Kidney/Bladder Imaging
Dialysis Access Imaging
Lung Ultrasound

URINALYSIS

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Squamous Epithelial Cells

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Transitional Epithelial Cells (ref)

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Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells (ref)

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Hyaline Cast (made of Tamm-Horsfall mucoprotein, secreted by tubules) (ref)

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Red Blood Cells (RBC)

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White Blood Cells (WBC)

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Dysmorphic RBC

RBC Cast

RBC Cast (ref)

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White Blood Cell Cast (ref)

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Broad/Waxy Cast

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Dark Granular/”Muddy Brown Casts”

Fatty Oval Body

Fatty Oval Body (under polarized light on right) (ref)

Urine1

Dark red/brown urine (ref): seen with hemoglobinuria, hematuria, myoglobinuria, porphyria, bile fragments, food/drugs

COMING SOON: yeast, bacteria, and crystals!


KIDNEY PATHOLOGY

Normal Kidney

Minimal Change Disease

IgA Nephropathy

Acute Interstitial Nephritis

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Post-Infectious Glomerulonephritis

Rhabdomyolysis

Class IV Lupus Nephritis

Lupus Membranous Nephropathy, Class V

Kidney Allograft Adenovirus Nephropathy

Kidney Allograft BK Virus Nephropathy


KIDNEY/BLADDER IMAGING

Normal Kidney (ultrasound, sagittal view)

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Kidney1
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Echogenic Kidney (ultrasound, sagittal view)

Hydronephrosis

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Ultrasound, sagittal view

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Ultrasound, kidney transplant, sagittal view

Computed Tomography (CT)

Polycystic Kidneys

PKD US

Ultrasound, sagittal view

PKD CT

Computed Tomography (CT)

Bladder1

Bladder (moderate wall thickening) with Urine


DIALYSIS ACCESS IMAGING

Outflow Stenosis (visualized during fistulagram)

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Relief of Outflow Stenosis (after fistulaplasty)

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Arteriovenous Graft (AVG) with Venous Anastomosis Stenosis & Intra-Graft Stenosis

In-Stent Stenosis of Cephalic Vein Arch

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LUNG ULTRASOUND

B-Lines (ref)

Blines