Case 41: Introduction

Case Published: December 2019

History of Present Illness (HPI)


A 35 year old man with a past medical history of hypertension (diagnosed 2 years ago) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is referred for kidney dysfunction and proteinuria. 

He reports he feels well and has no complaints. He does not have hematuria, dysuria, or other urinary symptoms. His current medications include ramipril, bendroflumethiazide (a thiazide diuretic), and anti-retrovirals including tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and lamivudine. He does not take non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).

He quit smoking 5 years ago (previously smoked 1 pack per day for 10 years), does not drink alcohol, or use illicit drugs. He does not have a family history of kidney disease.

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